Grow Guide Conditions:
A nutritious garden favorite, Brussels Sprouts love cool weather and can be planted in early spring for a summer harvest in cool coastal climates, or in mid- to late-summer for a fall/winter crop sweetened by fall frosts in the rest of the country.
Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale, and Kohlrabi are all closely related members the Brassica genus. All of these crops are relatively cold hardy and perform best in cool, moderate climates with consistent moisture and a soil pH of 6.0–7.2. Excessively high temperatures for broccoli and cauliflower may result in premature head formation, the presence of leaves in heads, or development of loose heads. None of the crops in this group thrive when daytime temperatures exceed 85°F.
Grow Guide Seed:
Brussels Sprouts may be direct seeded or transplanted. Direct-seed when outdoor temperatures are above 50°F (optimum 60–65°F). Plant seed ¼ inch deep, 3-4 seeds per row foot, allowing 18-24 inches between rows. Thin to one plant every 18 inches. To start seedlings indoors, fill starter trays with a sterile seed starting mix. Plant 2 seeds per cell, ¼ inch deep. Ideal soil temperature for germination is 75°F. Thin to 1 plant per cell. Maintain greenhouse temperatures above 45°F night and below 85°F day. Harden-off seedlings for 5–7 days prior to transplanting. Transplant 5–6 week old seedlings outside in a fertile garden bed, 18 inches apart, allowing 18-24 inches between rows.
Grow Guide Pests:
Practice 2–4 year crop rotations between all Brassica species. Insect pressure on fall-harvested brassicas is typically not as heavy as on spring crops, but aphids can be a problem in the late fall. Encourage beneficial insect activity for suppression of aphids, and/or control aphid outbreaks with insecticidal soap. Control cabbage worms and loopers with Bt (Bacillus thuringienthus), available commercially as Dipel. Floating row covers used from the day of planting will protect from heavy flea beetle damage on spring crops. Maintain a pH between 7.0-7.2 for suppression of Club Root (Plasmodiophora brassicae). See our merchandise section for related products.
Grow Guide Harvest:
Harvest Brussels Sprouts when the sprouts are still small and tightly closed. For small quantities, pick off the sprouts from the bottom up, leaving the smaller sprouts to continue sizing up. For larger harvests, cut the entire stalk at the base and remove the individual sprouts. Store in the refrigerator to keep for about a week.